Brexit – What consequences for European Works Councils ?
A referendum was held on 23 June 2016, to decide whether the UK should leave or remain in the EU, the so called Brexit (“British” and “exit”). England and Wales voted for leave. Scotland, Northern Ireland, Greater London and Gibraltar backed staying in the EU. Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, Cardiff and the regions around the university cities such as Cambridge, Oxford and Warwick backed staying in the EU.
The referendum was non-binding
Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union establishes the procedures for a member state to withdraw from the EU. It requires the member state to notify the EU of its withdrawal and obliges the EU to then try to negotiate a withdrawal agreement with that state. Britain's “Leave” vote does not represent that formal notification.
The High Court in London ruled on 3 November 2016, that only parliament – not the prime minister – can authorise the signing of Article 50. The government appealed against the judgment. The Supreme Court heard the case from 5 to 8 December 2016 and confirmed the High Court ruling on 24 January 2017.
On 13 March 2017 both Houses of Parliament endorsed the activation of Article 50. The prime minister started the formal legal process of withdrawing from the EU on 29 March 2017 and negotiations started on 19 June 2017. Meanwhile politicians in Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales called for a referendum on leaving the UK (see press report).
The general election on 8 June 2017
Theresa May called a snap election to strengthen her parliamentary majority and have more power and freedom to negotiate Britain's exit from the European Union, but she lost her parliamentary majority. The increase in Labour’s vote share was the largest for any party between two general elections since 1945.
The government lost a crucial vote in the House of Commons on 13 December 2017 due to critics within the conservative party who sided with the opposition to back an amendment for a right of veto over the final Brexit deal (see press report). There was however no majority in Parliament for a particular form of Brexit. The Parliament voted on three occasions (15 January, 12 and 29 March 2019) with a substantial majority each time against the withdrawal agreement that the government has negotiated with the EU. This political deadlock led to delaying Brexit initially by two weeks and subsequently until 31 October 2019. The Commons backed a bill to block a no-deal departure on 4 September 2019 (see press report). As a result, Brexit was postponed again until 31 January 2020 (see press report).
The general election on 12 December 2019
Although 50.8% of all votes went to parties critical of Brexit and only 45.7% to Brexit supporters, Prime Minister Boris Johnson was able to win most of the seats in Parliament thanks to the electoral system and the fragmented opposition. The Labour Party is far behind and has achieved the worst result since 1935. Johnson has a larger majority than Margaret Thatcher in 1987. The Tories have won the fourth election in a row and after nine years will be able to govern for another five years. Scotland's quest for independence has received a new boost. The Scottish National Party has won three quarters of all seats in Scotland, which is an important argument for another independence referendum.
The legal situation after 1 February 2020
With the withdrawal from the EU, almost nothing did change, since the withdrawal agreement includes a transition period until 31 December 2020. During this period the UK was no longer a member state, but had to comply with EU law without having a say (comparable to Norway). During the transition period, the future relationship with the EU was negotiated.
- Masses of customs paperwork and increased costs for traders are becoming reality
On 13 July 2020 the UK government unveiled a guide detailing new regulations for hauliers exchanging goods with EU member countries. Hundreds of millions of customs forms will be required each year, collectively costing firms billions of pounds. Britain is also set to hire thousands more customs staff and build new truck parks and border control posts near ports (see press report).
Do British EWC members lose their mandate?
Prior to 15 December 1999 there was no EWC legislation in the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, at that time many large British companies had established a EWC. The EWC agreement was then, for example under Belgian, German or French jurisdiction. Usually the UK workforce was also integrated into the EWC. In companies with headquarters in Switzerland, the Swiss workforce is represented on the EWC in over 70% of the cases. This suggests that in practice, a massive loss of British mandates will probably not happen. The situation is different in EWC agreements under British jurisdiction. It remains entirely uncertain, as to whether or not they will continue to apply or have to be completely renegotiated.
At the conservative party convention held in Birmingham, government members declared on 2 October 2016, that the currently applicable labour legislation would not be touched. On 8 August 2019, the UK government said it will not abolish the British EWC legislation (TICER 2010), but freeze it. All European works councils already in existence on British soil, would continue to operate and no British delegate in continental-European EWCs would lose his mandate. Furthermore, requests for establishing a European works council, which have been registered before the end of the transition period, are to remain valid and may be negotiated up to the conclusion. However it would no longer be possible in the future to establish new European works councils under British jurisdiction.
- UK government guidance on the legal situation as of 1 January 2021
- Trade Union Recommendations for EWC and SE Agreements (January 2021)
The economy after the referendum
- The Swiss pharmaceutical group Roche warns of drug shortages in the United Kingdom and will reconsider its investments there. (Press report, 21 July 2016)
- Japanese businesses with their European headquarters in the UK may decide to transfer their head-office to continental Europe, says Japan's government. (Press report, 4 September 2016)
- Three-quarters of British chief executives say they are considering moving their headquarters or some of their operations outside the UK as a result of Brexit. (Press report, 26 September 2016)
- “Have a break, have a Brexit!” Swiss food giant Nestlé has warned that it may have to put up prices of Nescafé, KitKat and other products because of the falling pound. (Press report, 21 October 2016)
- Ratings agency Moody's announced on 2 November 2016 to downgrade the UK's sovereign rating if the UK lost access to the Single Market (see announcement).
- Brexit vote’s blow to the economy would force the government to borrow £122bn more than hoped, admits Chancellor Philip Hammond. (Press report, 23 November 2016)
- More than 100 companies based in the City of London inquiring about relocating to Ireland after Brexit. (Press report, 25 December 2016)
- Goldman Sachs has suspended plans to move key operations from the US to London and HSBC and UBS warn they will have to relocate staff out of Britain. (Press report, 19 January 2017)
- Citigroup plans new operations away from London after Brexit. (Press report, 24 January 2017)
- According to a new study, one in seven businesses active in Britain is considering moving to the Continent as a result of Brexit. The top destination is Germany. (Press report, 31 January 2017)
- Ryanair will move future investment away from the UK and into its European operations as a result of Brexit. (Press report, 6 February 2017)
- According to the Institute for Fiscal Studies, Britain is set for a return to falling real pay later this year, with this decade now set to be the worst for pay growth since the Napoleonic wars.
(Press report, 9 March 2017)
- 40% of games companies based in the UK are considering relocating out of the country in the wake of Brexit. The UK boasts more than 2,000 games companies, with 12,100 full-time employees. (Press report, 30 March 2017)
- Britain’s essential role in the global aerospace industry could come under pressure from Brexit, since it is “hardwired” into the global supply chain. (Press report, 11 April 2017)
- One in five small business employers have EU staff and one-third do business with the EU. Brexit could force small businesses to shut down or move abroad. (Press report, 25 April 2017)
- The largest global banks in London plan to move about 9,000 jobs to the continent in the next two years. (Press report, 8 May 2017)
- Farms have been hit with a shortage of the migrant workers that Britain relies on to bring in the fruit and vegetable harvests. (Press report, 22 June 2017)
- The European Central Bank is making a bid for authority over euro clearing after Brexit, which could cost 232,000 British jobs. Frankfurt is so far beating out other cities in luring business from London. (Press report, 23 June 2017)
- Leaving the EU could have “catastrophic” effects on access to new potentially life-saving medicines for decades, according to health economics consultant. (Press report, 27 June 2017)
- Prospect of seasonal labour crisis prompts calls for introducing new scheme to ensure UK farms have enough workers. (Press report, 6 July 2017)
- US bank JP Morgan with 16,000 UK staff has warned that up to three-quarters of its workforce could be transferred to EU countries after Brexit. (Press report, 11 July 2017)
- EasyJet is creating a new airline in Vienna to continue flying in the European Union after Brexit. (Press report, 14 July 2017)
- Deutsche Bank envisions shifting 4,000 jobs, almost half its UK staff, to the European continent. (Press report, 1 August 2017)
- Leaving the EU will reverse the progress made in past decades and may wipe out small suppliers, says Britain's motor society. (Press report, 4 August 2017)
- The UK produces only 60% of its own food and must increase production to avoid food insecurity after leaving the EU. (Press report, 5 August 2017)
- Relocation plans and a banking exodus from London will result in the creation of up to 87,667 new roles throughout the Rhein-Main-Region in Germany. (Press report, 25 August 2017)
- According to a survey, 63% of EU companies expect to move some of their supply chains out of Britain. (Press report, 6 November 2017)
- The chemical industry is “highly reliant on EU supply chains” and Brexit will be putting 500,000 direct and indirect jobs in jeopardy. (BBC report, 8 March 2018)
- More than a fifth of manufacturing firms are planning to lay off workers to cope with the costs of Brexit, according to a survey. (Press report, 31 March 2018)
- Jaguar Land Rover, UK's largest car manufacturer with around 40,000 employees, has warned that a “bad” Brexit deal may force it to close factories. (Press report, 4 July 2018)
- Panasonic Europe will transfer its regional headquarters from Bracknell in the UK to Amsterdam. (BBC report, 30 August 2018)
- British manufacturers are pulling back sharply on investment plans due to mounting uncertainty over Brexit. (Press report, 1 October 2018)
- German manufacturer Schaeffler has said Brexit is a factor in its decision to close two UK plants, with 500 jobs expected to be lost. (Press report, 6 November 2018)
- London will lose up to 700bn £ in assets to rival financial hub Frankfurt, Germany by March 2019 as 37 banks start to transfer business. (Press report, 29 November 2018)
- Farmers are finding Brexit as disruptive as a major disease outbreak, and food companies are in danger of moving out of the UK or scaling back their investment. (Press report, 8 February 2019)
- The University of Oxford finds that the UK's car industry has lost 9% of its volume due to Brexit, and overall investment has dropped by 80% over the last three years (see report, 10 April 2019).
- British Steel enters insolvency, blaming partly “Brexit-related issues” for its difficulties (see press report, 23 May 2019).
- The economic growth for 2019 is just 1%, the weakest expansion outside a recession for more than half a century. (Press report, 27 December 2019)
- British car manufacturing slumped to its lowest level since 2010, a decline of more than 14% on 2018. (Press report, 30 January 2020)
- At the beginning of 2021, it will become illegal for UK banks to provide services for British customers in the EU without applying for new banking licences. (Press report, 20 September 2020)
- U.S. carmaker Ford closed its Bridgend plant in South Wales. (BBC report, 25 September 2020)
- On 23 October 2020, a trade agreement between the UK and Japan was signed. The new deal is very similar to the existing EU-Japan deal, but a deal between the UK and the EU is still crucial for Japanese business. (BBC report, 23 October 2020)
The economy after the Brexit transition period
- Ireland has ramped up direct shipping routes to mainland Europe guaranteeing freight remains inside the single market and customs union. (Press report, 7 January 2021)
- Hundreds of UK companies could switch operations to EU countries in what is threatening to become a dramatic exodus of investment and jobs. (Press report, 30 January 2021)
- Fish exporters face extensive paperwork, rising costs and border delays following the end of the Brexit transition period (see BBC report, 5 February 2021). This is particularly difficult for fishermen in Cornwall (see press report, 20 February 2021).
- Half of British exporters to the EU are facing difficulties with mounting Brexit red tape and border disruption, according to the British Chambers of Commerce (see press report, 11 February 2021).
- London stock trading is the first casualty of a post-Brexit battle over financial services. Amsterdam is now more important in handling share transactions (see press report, 11 February 2021).
- The number of Japanese firms based in the UK fell 12% between 2014 and 2019, the number of firms in the Netherlands grew by 67% over the same period (see press report, 9 March 2021).
- Whisky, cheese and chocolate producers have suffered the biggest post-Brexit export losses and exports of salmon and beef almost stopped altogether. UK food and drink exports to Germany is down 81% (see press report, 22 March 2021).
- More than 440 firms operating in the UK banking and finance sector have relocated parts of their business, moved staff or established new EU entities due to Brexit (see press report, 16 April 2021).
- Brexit-related driver shortage hits supermarket shelves affecting fresh goods such as meat and milk (see press report, 3 August 2021).
- In the first half of 2021, the UK food and drink sector has taken a £2 billion hit in lost exports to the EU (see press report, 2 September 2021).
- UK is losing its overall competitiveness following Brexit and will fall out of Germany's top ten trading partners for the first time in 70 years (see press report, 10 September 2021).
- Shortage of truck drivers, a result of workers leaving the country following Brexit, has led to fuel rationing and some pumps running dry (see press report, 27 September 2021).
- Restaurants and hotels facing 18% inflation due to supply chain chaos and labour shortages (see press report, 19 October 2021).
- The impact of Brexit on the UK economy will reduce the GDP by about 4%, the chairman of the Office for Budget Responsibility has said (see BBC report, 27 October 2021).
- The volume of traffic through Dublin Port in the first nine months of 2021 with Britain is down 21.2%, to and from Continental ports increased by 36.3% (see press report, 27 October 2021).
- British Meat producers send beef to Ireland amid shortages of butchers and pork producers send pigs to the Netherlands for butchering and packing (see BCC report, 3 November 2021).
- Britain's share of imports to Ireland has been slashed by two-thirds because of Brexit, while Northern Ireland's share of UK exports to Ireland is surging (see press report, 21 December 2021).
- Customs duties paid by UK businesses increased by 64% in the year to 31 January 2022 (see
press report, 24 February 2022).
- Labour shortages caused by Brexit have badly affected businesses across the food and farming sector and could cause “permanent” damage (see press report, 7 April 2022).
- Post-Brexit trading rules caused a “major shock” to UK-EU trade. UK imports from the EU fell by 25% relative to those from elsewhere in 2021 and many UK firms stopped exporting to the trade bloc (see BBC report, 27 April 2022).
- Northern Ireland's economy is growing faster than Britain's, based on continued access to barrier-free trade with the 27-nation EU as a key driver (see press report, 1 June 2022).
- Some steel exports from Great Britain to Northern Ireland are facing a 25% tariff because of changes to EU rules (see BBC report, 25 August 2022).
- Post-Brexit checks reduce Eurostar's capacity by a third (see press report, 27 September 2022).
- Trade from UK to EU is 16% lower and from EU to UK 20% lower than if Brexit had not happened (see press report, 19 October 2022).
- Brexit will result in the UK's trade intensity being 15% lower in the long run than if the UK had remained in the EU (see press report, 17 November 2022).
- The first major free trade agreement signed by Britain after Brexit (with Japan) has been branded a failure (see press report, 26 November 2022).
- Brexit had pushed food prices up by 6% because of extra red tape and checks, adding £210 to household food bills (see BBC report, 2 December 2022).
- The number of people arriving at a UK port from France has more than halved after Brexit, but sailings to and from Ireland had seen increased business (see BBC report, 16 December 2022).
- Brexit has led to a shortfall of 330,000 people in the UK labour force, mostly in the low-skilled economy (see press report, 17 January 2023).
- Brexit has dealt the UK economy a “productivity penalty” of £29bn, or £1,000 per household (see BBC report, 14 February 2023).
- The UK will join the Asia-Pacific trade partnership to boost UK exports, but the size of the UK economy will only grow by 0.08% (see BBC report, 31 March 2023).
- French and German tourists are beginning to avoid the UK, because of post-Brexit restrictions on travelling with identity cards (see press report, 8 April 2023).
Post-Brexit checks and charges on food imported from the European Union are further delayed (see BBC report, 1 September 2023).
Brexit could lead to the “disintegration” of the whole UK
“People thought there was something patriotic or particularly pro-British about leaving the EU only to discover that it led to the disintegration of our country.” (William Hague, former Foreign Secretary)
“I have met in my life two big destroyers: Gorbachev, who destroyed the Soviet Union, and Cameron, who destroyed the United Kingdom.” (Jean-Claude Juncker, former European Commission president)
1. Scottish independence
Scotland voted to remain in the European Union. On 30 March 2017 Scotland's first minister formally asked for powers to hold a second Scottish independence referendum (see BBC report).
The Labour Party published a plan for a federal UK, a “third option” for Scotland's future. The Scottish government should be given the power to set VAT rates and sign international treaties (see BBC report).
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair said in January 2016, that he thinks Scotland will leave the United Kingdom if the United Kingdom leaves the European Union (see BBC report). The U.S. bank JP Morgan said on 29 June 2016 it now expects Scotland to vote for independence and introduce its own currency (see press report). Scotland is looking to open its own trade representations abroad and signed its first economic collaboration declaration with Bavaria on 24 March 2017 (see press report).
- Scotland rejoining EU “could be speedy”
Spain's foreign minister confirmed his government would not veto any attempt from Scotland to join the EU after Brexit (see BBC report). The former European Council president Donald Tusk said, Brussels “would be enthusiastic” if an independent Scotland sought to rejoin the EU (see press report).
- Scottish Parliament against the post-Brexit trade deal -- 30 December 2020
A motion said parliament “does not consent to” the UK legislation, which is seen as “a principled vote against Brexit” and in favour of Scottish independence (see BBC report).
- British government to tackle Scottish independence threat -- 25 February 2021
Boris Johnson has set up a cabinet committee to focus on keeping the UK together (see press report).
- British government would not stand in the way of another vote -- 1 August 2021
For the first time, the Cabinet Office minister said if the public desire a second referendum on Scottish independence, “one would occur” (see press report).
- Scotland would immediately seek to rejoin the EU -- 17 October 2022
In a policy paper the Scottish government has setting out ist economic priorities outside the UK: re-joining the EU and joining the EU's Schengen free movement area (see press report).
2. Irish reunification
An independence referendum is under discussion on Irish reunification.
- European leaders to recognise a united Ireland -- 29 April 2017
The 2 March 2017 poll brought an end to the unionist majority in the Northern Ireland Assembly. The two main nationalist parties now have more seats than the two main unionist parties (see press report). Population change will bring a majority for Irish unity in a few years' time anyway (see political analysis). If the island reunifies, the north will automatically regain EU membership (see press report). So the EU has done something it has never done before: it has offered an incentive to part of an existing state to join another state.
- Northern Ireland Assembly against Brexit bill -- 20 January 2020
The motion was to “affirm that the assembly does not agree to give its consent”, because the UK government's Brexit plans will do “untold damage” to Northern Ireland businesses (see BBC report).
- Brexit is a gamechanger for Northern Ireland -- 1 January 2021
England, Scotland and Wales left the European Union's single market for goods on 31 December 2020 but Northern Ireland did not. It's hugely symbolic that Northern Ireland will now be treated differently to the rest of the UK (see press report).
- Disruption to trade across the Irish Sea border -- 13 January 2021
There are shortages in supermarkets due to Brexit checks on food goods entering Northern Ireland from the rest of the UK (see BBC report).
- 65% increase of Northern Ireland goods exported to the Republic -- 15 February 2022
Northern Ireland has remained in the EU's single market for goods. Therefore it has become more difficult for businesses in either part of Ireland to import goods from Great Britain (see BBC report).
- United Ireland debate after historic election -- 8 May 2022
The Northern Ireland Assembly election on 5 May 2022 is ending a century of domination by pro-British parties (see press report). Currently only 48% of the population of Northern Ireland want to remain in the UK - down from 54% in 2020 (see BBC report, 26 May 2022).
- New EU law on Brexit sanctions against UK -- 30 November 2022
The European Parliament finalised a law that will allow the EU to take retaliatory measures, including sanctions against the UK if it refuses to implement the Northern Ireland protocol (see press report).
- The Northern Ireland Protocol is lawful -- 8 February 2023
The Supreme Court has comprehensively dismissed an appeal by Northern Ireland unionist lawmakers to have the post-Brexit trade rules declared unconstitutional (see press report).
Brexit deal for Northern Ireland adopted -- 24 March 2023
The Windsor Framework is designed to make trade between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK easier (see BBC report).
3. Status of London
London voted to remain in the EU. A petition calling to declare London independent from the UK has received more than 180,000 signatures. Supporters of London's independence argued that London's demographic, culture and values are different from the rest of England, and that it should become a city state similar to Singapore, while remaining an EU member state (see press report).
4. Status of Wales
On 2 July 2016 demonstrations for the independence of Wales and to remain in the EU took place for the first time in two cities.
- Warning of inner-UK “trade war”
On 18 March 2017, the first minister of Wales warned of a “trade war” between the nations of the United Kingdom after Brexit (see BBC report).
- Brexit could lead to Welsh independence
For many years the number in favour of independence for Wales remained static on roughly 10%, but a poll in March 2021 showed a “dramatic uplift” with 40% backing independence and with most support amongst young people (see press report).
5. Status of Gibraltar
Gibraltar voted with 96% majority to remain in the EU. As of 1 January 2021, Gibraltar has become part of the Schengen passport-free area with the sponsorship of Spain. This represents a turning point since Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in 1713 (see press report).
6. Orkney Islands
Orkney could leave the UK to become a self-governing territory of Norway after its council opted to explore “alternative forms of governance” (see press report).
A new Constitution?
Since July 2015 the all-party Constitution Reform Group is already working on a new constitutional settlement for the United Kingdom: http://www.constitutionreformgroup.co.uk
- Call for a “more federal UK”
On 28 March 2017, former British prime minister Gordon Brown called for the creation of councils for England’s regions (see press report). Andy Burnham, the first elected mayor of Greater Manchester, is seeking the establishment of a new body: the Council of the North (see press report).
- “UK at risk of becoming failed state”
On 24 January 2021, Gordon Brown called for fundamental constitutional changes led by a “commission on democracy” that would “review the way the whole United Kingdom is governed” (see press report).
- Labour leader will abolish the House of Lords -- 19 November 2022
It should be replaced with an elected chamber of regions and nations (see press report).
89% of citizens support constitutional reforms -- 26 June 2023
Following the results of a survey, just 6% of citizens believe the UK’s political system does not need reforming (see press report).
What is the most likely scenario?
“Surviving your own suicide” (Chris Patten, former EU Commissioner, Conservative Party)
- UK public expects disintegration of the United Kingdom -- 18 March 2017
A poll from 14 to 17 March 2017 shows 54% of Britons (63% of Scots) believe the Brexit vote increases the chances of the United Kingdom breaking apart (see press report).
- 60% of Britons want to keep their EU citizenship after Brexit -- 1 July 2017
This would include the rights to live, work, study and travel in the EU – and many would be prepared to pay large sums to do so (see press report).
- Brexit vision isn't achievable -- 24 August 2017
England has yet to answer fundamental questions raised by Brexit, former Irish Prime Minister John Bruton said. Brexit is intimately linked to deeper questions of identity, who they are and their place in the world. And that's a psychological process rather than an economic one (see press report).
- UK would vote to stay in EU by 12 percent point margin -- 17 January 2019
The proportion of people wishing to stay in the EU reached the highest level since the 2016 Brexit referendum (see press report).
- Majority of Tory members would accept destruction of their own party -- 18 June 2019
According to a survey, 54% of Conservative party members say they would rather see their own party destroyed than have Brexit not take place. 61% would prefer to see significant damage to the economy and 63% would consider Scotland leaving the UK to be a price worth paying (see report).
- Brexit is “going badly” -- 29 September 2021
According to new polling, 53 percent of Brits said Brexit is working out badly, a rise of 15 percentage points from June 2021 (see press report).
- Brexit is affecting shop prices -- 30 October 2021
Almost twice as many voters believe Brexit is having a negative effect on the UK economy as think it is benefiting the nation's finances (see press report).
- Two in three Brits wants a second EU referendum -- 1 January 2023
The survey found that 54% now say Brexit was the wrong decision, up from 46% last year. Half of all respondents said Britain's global influence had suffered following Brexit (see press report).
- Cross-party gathering of Brexit opponents -- 11 February 2023
There is a growing acceptance among politicians in the two main parties, that Brexit in its current form is damaging the UK economy and reducing its strategic influence in the world (see press report).
“We must admit Brexit is a mistake and rejoin the single market” -- 4 July 2023
Many MPs privately agree with the notion that Britain should secure a Norway-style relationship with the EU but are too scared to say so (see press report).
Proportion of Britons who say Brexit was a mistake hit a new record high -- 18 July 2023
A survey showed 63% now regard Brexit as more of a failure than a success, compared with 12% who saw it as more of a success (see press report).
Thousands of protesters calling for the UK to rejoin the EU -- 23 September 2023
The national rejoin march saw large crowds of people from across the UK blaming Britain's crises on departure from the EU (see press report).